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Modern Organic Synthesis

Organic chemistry is an area of modern science, which is in highest demand today as it helps improve the quality of human life and health and design new generations of medications, including those for the prevention and treatment of socially significant diseases. Most of current industrial processes are associated with the synthesis and processing of organic substances. These are organic molecules that are and will be a key pillar of the fuel and energy sector (hydrocarbons refining) and top priorities in the short-term development of chemical industry.

Nevertheless, the destiny of organic chemistry over the last decades has been rather dramatic. The application of organic substances and methodologies of their synthesis have actually substituted basic chemical research in the minds of scientists and experts. This part of chemical science has almost disappeared from development programs and road maps and only a small number of research foundations and grant programs support basic research in organic chemistry. Bright and rapidly evolving applications of organic substances and large-scale research programs (pharma, bio, nano, energy, and new materials) have largely pushed aside basic science in the synthesis of organic molecules as a foundation of any R&D and innovations.

Russian Chemical Reviews (No. 10, 2014) published a unique review prepared by renowned Russian experts who represent key areas of modern chemistry. The paper reveals an intriguing trend in the development of organic chemistry – “atomic precision” in performing chemical reactions, which is the frontline of the synthesis and transformation of organic molecules. In our opinion, contemporary science in Russia urgently needs publications that would give impetus to new academic programs and, further on, to the development of basic research.

The successful work of a large team of authors from 13 academic institutes and universities is presented in 14 sections of the review. Of course, it is impossible to give a detailed analysis of all current trends in the development of organic chemistry. However the review, which has no analogs in Russian periodicals, sets an optimal balance in the presentation of material. I am confident that the review will be very useful for the mainstream audience.

Director of N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of RAS

Full Member of RAS, Professor                                                                              М.P. Egorov

Russian Chemical Reviews, 2014, 83 (10), 885 - 985.

DOI: 10.1070/RC2014v083n10ABEH004471

Development of the Methodology of Modern Selective Organic Synthesis: Preparation of Functionalized Molecules with Atomic Precision

V.P. Ananikov,ab L.L. Khemchian,a Yu.V. Ivanova,a V.I. Bukhtiyarov,cd А.М. Sorokin,c I.P. Prosvirin,c S.Z. Vatsadze,e А.V. Medvedko,e V.N. Nuriev,e А.D. Dilman,a V.V. Levin,a I.V. Koptiug,fd К.V. Kovtunov,fd V.V. Zhyvonitko,fd V.А. Likholobov,g А.V. Romanenko,c P.А. Simonov,cd V.G. Nenaidenko,eh О.I. Shmatova,e V.М. Muzalevskiy,e М.S. Nechaiev,ei А.F. Asachenko,i О.S. Morozov,i P.B. Dzhevakov,i S.N. Osipov,h D.V. Vorobiova,h М.А. Topchiy,h М.А. Zotova,h S.А. Ponomarenko,ej О.V. Borschev,j Yu.N. Luponosov,j А.А. Rempel,kl А.А. Valeeva,kl А.Yu. Stakheev,a О.V. Turova,a I.S. Mashkovskiy,a S.V. Sysoliatin,m V.V. Malykhin,m G.А. Bukhtiyarova,c А.О. Terentiev,a I.B. Krylova
a N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation
b St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
c G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
d Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
e M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Moscow, Russian Federation
f International Tomography Center, the Siberian Branch of RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
g Institute of Hydrocarbon Processing, Siberian Branch of RAS, Omsk, the Russian Federation
h A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds of RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation
i A.V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow, Russian Federation
j N.S. Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials of RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation
k Institute of Solid Body Chemistry of the Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation
l Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation
m Institute for Chemical and Energy Technologies of the Siberian Branch of RAS, Biysk, Russian Federation

The challenges of the modern society and the growing demand of high-technology sectors of industrial production bring about a new phase in the development of organic synthesis. A cutting edge of modern synthetic methods is introduction of functional groups and more complex structural units into organic molecules with unprecedented control over the course of chemical transformations. Analysis of the state-of-the-art achievements in selective organic synthesis indicates the appearance of a new trend — the synthesis of organic molecules, biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical substances, and smart materials with absolute selectivity. Most advanced approaches to organic synthesis anticipated in the near future can be defined as ‘atomic precision’ in chemical reactions. The review considers selective methods of organic synthesis suitable for transformation of complex functionalized molecules under mild conditions. Selected key trends in the modern organic synthesis are considered including the preparation of organofluorine compounds, catalytic cross-coupling and oxidative cross-coupling reactions, atom-economic addition reactions, methathesis processes, oxidation and reduction reactions, synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, application of photocatalysis, scaling up of synthetic procedures to industrial level and development of new approaches to investigation of mechanisms of catalytic reactions.
The bibliography includes 840 references.

Russian Chemical Reviews, 2014, 83 (10), 885 - 985.

DOI: 10.1070/RC2014v083n10ABEH004471

Important events:

The European Academy of Sciences (Academia Europaea) was founded in 1988. It unites about four thousand globally acknowledged experts in mathematics, medicine, natural sciences, humanities, law, economy, and social and political sciences from many countries of Europe. Among its members are also European scientists who live in other regions of the world. Currently, it includes seventy two Nobel laureates and it should be highlighted that many of them were elected to the Academy before winning the Prize.
Prof Mario Pagliaro (Palermo Italy) gave two talks on June 8th and 9th.
Alexey Sukhorukov, N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Moscow, Russia, and colleagues studied the selective reactions of in-situ generated metal azides on N,N-bis(oxy)enamines. By combining readily generated bis(oxy)enamine substrates with sodium azide and one of a variety of metal salts (including Mg, Cu, Zn, Co, and Ni), the researchers showed that the metal cation selectively alters the mechanism to favor the formation of specific organoazide products.
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